Amino Acid Emulator
The influence of altered amino acid concentrations on organs, organ systems and metabolism
Correlated amino acids
A modified form of histidine formed during muscle protein synthesis. An elevation of 1-methylhistidine in the blood may indicate an increased rate of muscle breakdown, as it is mainly found in muscle tissue. A deficiency of 1-methylhistidine in the body may indicate an insufficient protein intake, as this amino acid is mainly found in animal proteins.
A modified form of histidine formed during muscle protein synthesis that can be used as a marker of muscle breakdown. An elevated level of 3-methylhistidine may indicate impaired renal function, as it is normally excreted by the kidneys. A deficiency of 3-methylhistidine may indicate impaired protein synthesis or increased protein breakdown in the body.
Alanine is a non-essential amino acid formed in the body either by conversion of the carbohydrate pyruvate or by breakdown of DNA and the dipeptides carnosine and anserine. It is highly concentrated in muscle and is one of the most important amino acids released by muscle, acting as the main source of energy. An increased concentration of alanine in the blood may indicate impaired liver function, diabetes, or increased protein synthesis. Low alanine concentration may be associated with poor glucose control in diabetes. Alanine is also involved in the regulation of acid-base balance, and low concentrations can lead to acidosis.
Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that performs numerous functions in the body. It aids in the disposal of ammonia, is used to produce compounds such as nitric oxide, creatine, glutamate, and proline, and can be converted to glucose and glycogen when needed. Increases in arginine concentration may indicate arginase deficiency. May also lead to increased nitric oxide levels, which can lead to blood pressure problems. Catabolic disease states such as sepsis, injury, and cancer cause an increase in arginine utilization that may exceed normal body production and lead to arginine depletion.
Asparagine is one of the most abundant natural and non-essential amino acids, but has a rather minor importance in the organism. For its production, aspartic acid and glutamine are needed, which must be supplied through food. Elevated levels of asparagine in the blood may be associated with metabolic disorders and neurological diseases. A deficiency of asparagine can impair growth and lead to fatigue, depression, and poor memory.
Aspartic acid is an amino acid that plays an important role in the urea cycle and DNA metabolism. An elevated level of aspartic acid in the blood may indicate impaired liver or kidney function. Aspartic acid plays a role in neurological complications as a neurotransmitter.
Betaine is an endogenous compound derived from the amino acid glycine. It has an important role in the methylation of molecules in the body and may also help regulate homocysteine metabolism. An elevation of betaine in the blood may indicate increased absorption of choline and/or impaired liver function, since betaine is formed from choline in the liver. Deficiency of betaine can lead to liver disease, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders.
Creatinine is excreted by the kidneys and can be used as a marker of renal function. An increase in creatinine in the blood may indicate impaired kidney function, as it is normally excreted by the kidneys. A deficiency of creatinine in the body is unusual because it is formed mainly as a breakdown product of creatine phosphate and is not absorbed directly from food. However, a deficiency of creatinine may indicate impaired muscle mass or renal dysfunction.
Cystine is an oxidized form of cysteine and is formed by linking two cysteine residues . Cystine is found in high concentrations in digestive enzymes as well as in cells of the immune system, skeletal and connective tissue, skin and hair. An increased concentration of cystine in the blood may indicate a metabolic disorder that can lead to kidney damage. Cystine deficiency can lead to growth retardation and eye problems.
Dimethylglycine is an amino acid derivative found in the cells of all plants and animals and can be obtained in small amounts from grains and meat in the diet. The human body produces DMG when it converts choline to glycine. Dimethylglycine, which is not metabolized in the liver, is transported from the circulatory system to body tissues. It is also a microbial metabolite. An elevation of dimethylglycine in the blood may indicate impaired methylation, liver disease, or impaired kidney function. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease, impaired homocysteine metabolism, possibly impaired immune function and increased inflammatory responses in the body.
Glutamic acid, also known as glutamate, is an amino acid and a key molecule in cellular metabolism. Glutamate is the most abundant fast excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system. Because of its role in synaptic plasticity, glutamic acid is thought to be involved in cognitive functions such as learning and memory in the brain. May lead to neurotoxicity and is associated with neurodegenerative diseases. A deficiency of glutamic acid can lead to fatigue, muscle weakness and loss of appetite. It is also important for brain functions.
Glutamine is an amino acid and is considered non-essential. Elevated glutamine levels in the blood may indicate a metabolic disorder or excessive protein synthesis. Marked glutamine depletion is always observed in hypercatabolic and hypermetabolic disease states, such as after surgery, severe injury, burns and infections.
Glycine is a simple, non-essential amino acid. Glycine is involved in the production of DNA, phospholipids and collagen, as well as the release of energy. Elevated glycine levels in the blood may be a sign of a metabolic disorder or may indicate kidney or liver disease. A deficiency of glycine can impair the immune system, inhibit growth and collagen production, and lead to neurological problems.
Histidine is an essential amino acid and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-secretion properties. Elevated histidine in the blood is accompanied by a variety of symptoms, from mental and physical disability to poor intellectual function, emotional instability, tremors, ataxia, and psychosis. Elevated histidine can lead to increased histamine levels, which can cause allergic reactions. Low plasma concentrations of histidine are associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and higher mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease.
Isoleucine is a branched-chain amino acid that is essential to human life and is particularly involved in stress, energy and muscle metabolism. Isoleucine elevations are increased in MSUD (maple syrup urine disease). A deficiency of isoleucine can lead to fatigue, muscle breakdown and metabolic disorders. It is also important for immune functions.
Leucine is used in the biosynthesis of proteins, and in man is essential, meaning the body cannot synthesize it and it must be obtained from the diet. Leucine stimulates protein synthesis, increases the reuse of amino acids in many organs, and decreases protein breakdown. Leucine also stimulates insulin release, which in turn stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits protein breakdown. Degradation of leucine leads to maple syrup disease in babies, and elevated ones are seen in diabetic patients. Increased leucine concentrations can increase muscle protein synthesis, but can also lead to increased blood glucose levels and cause neurological problems in people with leucine sensitivity. Deficiency results in fatigue, loss of appetite, malnutrition, lethargy, developmental delay, hair loss.
Lysine is an essential amino acid and is highly concentrated in muscle compared to most other amino acids. Increased lysine concentration may improve bone metabolism but also increase the risk of kidney stones. Deficiency can cause immunodeficiency, stress, growth disorders, fatigue, anemia, exhaustion.
Methionine is an essential amino acid required for normal human growth and development. When methionine is present in sufficiently high amounts, it can act as an atherogen and metabotoxin. Elevated methionine levels can increase the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Chronically high methionine levels are associated with at least ten inborn errors of metabolism. Deficiency observed with depression, fatty liver..
Ornithine is found in most human tissues and biofluids. In humans, ornithine is involved in numerous metabolic disorders, such as ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, argininemia, and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency. In addition, ornithine is also associated with inborn errors of metabolism. Ornithine plays an important role in detoxifying ammonia in the body by being used in the urea cycle pathway. Therefore, a deficiency of ornithine can lead to an increase in ammonia in the blood, which can result in a number of symptoms such as fatigue, nausea, headaches, confusion and seizures.
Phenylalanine is the precursor of the amino acid tyrosine, as well as catecholamines, including tyramine, dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Catecholamines are neurotransmitters that act as adrenaline-like substances. Phenylalanine is highly concentrated in plasma. In high concentrations neuro- and metabotoxin. Elevated phenylalanine concentrations can lead to accumulation of phenylalanine in the brain, which can cause serious neurological damage in people with phenylketonuria (PKU). Elevated concentrations can be seen in heart failure, chronic inflammation, infections, sepsis, or septic shock. Observed with impairment of hormone synthesis, disruption of myelination of nerve fibers.
Proline is a non-essential amino acid synthesized from glutamic acid. It is an essential component of collagen and important for the smooth functioning of joints and tendons. Proline can act as a neurotoxin and metabotoxin under certain conditions. Chronically high proline levels are associated with at least five inborn errors of metabolism. Proline is important for human growth because the growth of bone requires collagen, which is formed from L-proline. Medical researchers have found that a combination of proline, lysine, and ascorbic acid recorded antimetastatic and antiproliferative effects on breast cancer, cancer cell lines, colon cancer, and skin cancer. Deficiency of proline may impair collagen production and wound healing.
Sarcosine is a natural amino acid found in muscles and other body tissues. Sarcosine occurs naturally in the metabolism of choline to glycine. Sarcosine is formed from the absorption of dietary choline and from the metabolism of methionine and is rapidly broken down to glycine. Sarcosine has been detected in urine in metastatic prostate cancer and can be used as an additional suspect parameter when determined. Congenital hyperaminoacidemia with increased sarcosine content of the blood results from sarcosine oxidase block and leads to disturbances in the development and function of the central nervous system. Deficiency of sarcosine in the blood is rare because it is not an essential amino acid and the body can synthesize sarcosine from other amino acids. However, sarcosine plays a role in the conversion of methionine to cysteine and is also involved in the regulation of neurotransmitters in the brain. A deficiency of sarcosine can therefore lead to problems with methionine and cysteine synthesis, as well as impair brain function.
Serine is an amino acid derived from glycine. Serine is highly concentrated in all cell membranes and plays a central role in cell proliferation. Serine can come from four possible sources: Food intake, biosynthesis from the glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate, from glycine, and by protein and phospholipid degradation. Increased concentration of serine in blood may be a sign of metabolic disorder or excessive protein synthesis. A deficiency of serine can inhibit growth and lead to neurological problems. It is also involved in the synthesis of phospholipids, which are important for cell membranes.
Adults can synthesize their own taurine, but probably rely in part on dietary taurine. Taurine has many different biological functions, including neurotransmitter in the brain, stabilizer of cell membranes, and transport aid for ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. An increase in taurine in the blood can be due to various factors, such as increased intake through diet or supplements, increased synthesis in the body or impaired excretion via the kidneys. Taurine is a non-essential amino acid that plays an important role in metabolism and various functions of the body. It is found primarily in tissues such as the brain, heart and muscles and has a variety of functions including regulating water and electrolyte balance, supporting immune function and protecting cell membranes from oxidative stress. Fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss, fatty liver, deficient bone growth, weakened immune system, effect on nerve functions (neurological symptoms).
Threonine is an essential amino acid in humans and is abundant in human plasma. Threonine is an immunostimulant that promotes the growth of the thymus gland and probably the immune defense function of cells. Elevated levels of threonine in the blood may indicate a metabolic disorder or excessive protein synthesis. A deficiency of threonine can result in a poor immune system, poor liver function, and growth problems.
Tyrosine is an essential amino acid that easily passes the blood-brain barrier. Once in the brain, it serves as a precursor for the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. These neurotransmitters are an important part of the body's sympathetic nervous system. Tyrosine also serves as a precursor for hormones, catecholestrogens, and the most important human pigment, melanin. An accumulation of tyrosine may indicate liver disease and renal dysfunction. Increased tyrosine levels can lead to an increase in dopamine production, which can lead to increased energy levels and improved mood, but can also lead to cardiovascular problems. Deficiency may result in fatigue and weight gain due to impaired production of thyroid hormones, fatigue, depression, skin pigmentation disorders.
Valine is one of the essential amino acids and is therefore crucial for human life. This amino acid is mainly involved in stress, energy and muscle metabolism, especially in carbohydrate metabolic pathways. An elevated level of valine in the blood may indicate a metabolic disorder or excessive protein synthesis. Deficiency: growth disorders, motor disorders, muscle wasting, hypersensitivity to touch or cramps.
Correlated areas of health
Malnutrition can result in deficiencies of various nutrients, including amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and play a critical role in maintaining and building body tissues, including muscles, organs and immune cells. Amino acid deficiency can lead to various health problems, such as muscle weakness, decreased immune function, delayed wound healing, changes in metabolism. To avoid amino acid deficiency in malnutrition, it is important to ensure a balanced and sufficient diet that contains all essential amino acids. Protein-rich foods such as meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, legumes and nuts are good sources of amino acids. In some cases, dietary supplementation with amino acids may be necessary to correct the deficiency. However, it is important to do this under medical supervision to ensure proper dosage and use.
Obesity, or overweight, is a complex health problem characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat. Amino acids play an important role in the body and may also be associated with the onset and treatment of obesity. Some amino acids can affect metabolism and help regulate body weight. Here are some amino acids that may play a role in obesity:
- Leucine: Involved in the regulation of hunger pangs. May reduce appetite and promote feelings of fullness. May help support muscle building and fat loss.
- Lysine: important for the growth and maintenance of muscle tissue. May boost metabolism and support fat metabolism. Lysine may also help stabilize blood sugar levels.
- Carnitine: Plays an important role in transporting fatty acids to the mitochondria, where they are burned for energy. Carnitine can promote fat loss and support energy balance.
- Glutamine: glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body and plays a role in energy metabolism. It can reduce appetite and increase the feeling of fullness. Glutamine can also improve insulin sensitivity and affect fat metabolism.
- Arginine: Involved in the regulation of metabolism and blood circulation. It can promote fat loss and improve insulin sensitivity. Arginine can also stimulate the release of growth hormone, which can positively affect fat metabolism.
It is important to note that the effects of amino acids on obesity are complex and depend on several factors such as overall diet, lifestyle, and genetic factors. Taking individual amino acids alone will not be sufficient to treat obesity. A balanced diet, regular physical activity and a healthy lifestyle are critical to achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight. It is recommended to consult a physician or nutrition expert for individualized weight loss counseling and support.
Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, including conditions like leaky gut syndrome and malabsorption disorders, can have an impact on amino acid metabolism and absorption. These conditions can affect the digestive process and lead to difficulties in properly absorbing and utilizing amino acids from dietary sources. Here's how GI diseases can relate to amino acids:
- Leaky Gut Syndrome: Leaky gut, also known as increased intestinal permeability, refers to a condition where the lining of the intestinal wall becomes more permeable, allowing toxins, undigested food particles, and bacteria to leak into the bloodstream. This can trigger an immune response and inflammation. In the case of leaky gut, the absorption of amino acids can be compromised, leading to inadequate levels of these essential building blocks for various bodily functions.
- Malabsorption Disorders: Malabsorption refers to a condition in which the body has difficulty absorbing nutrients, including amino acids, from the gastrointestinal tract. Disorders like celiac disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and pancreatic insufficiency can all contribute to malabsorption. When the absorption of amino acids is impaired, it can result in deficiencies and imbalances of these essential nutrients, affecting protein synthesis and overall health.
- Disruption of Gut Microbiota: The gut microbiota, composed of trillions of bacteria residing in the GI tract, play a crucial role in digestion and nutrient absorption. Imbalances in gut microbiota, often seen in GI diseases, can impact amino acid metabolism. Some bacteria in the gut can produce or break down specific amino acids, and an imbalance in these microbial populations can affect amino acid availability and balance in the body.
Addressing GI diseases and promoting gut health can help optimize amino acid absorption and utilization. This can be achieved through various strategies, including treating the underlying GI condition, supporting gut health, and optimizing nutrient intake. It's important to consult with a healthcare professional, such as a gastroenterologist or registered dietitian, for personalized advice and guidance tailored to your specific condition and nutritional needs.
Sarcopenia is the medical term for the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. Amino acids play an important role in maintaining and promoting muscle health, including preventing or slowing muscle loss in sarcopenia. Here are some aspects of the relationship between amino acids and sarcopenia:
- Protein synthesis: amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, and proteins are essential for building and repairing muscle tissue. Adequate dietary intake of amino acids is critical to maintain protein synthesis in muscles. Of particular importance are the so-called branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) such as leucine, isoleucine and valine, which play a key role in stimulating protein synthesis in muscle.
- Muscle protein breakdown: in addition to protein synthesis, muscle protein breakdown also plays a role in sarcopenia. An imbalance between muscle protein breakdown and synthesis may contribute to muscle loss. Amino acids, especially BCAAs and glutamine, can reduce muscle protein breakdown and slow muscle loss.
- Anabolic response: amino acids stimulate the release of anabolic hormones such as insulin and growth hormone, which are important for building and maintaining muscle mass. In particular, the amino acid leucine plays a key role in activating mTOR signaling pathways that stimulate muscle protein synthesis.
- Immune system function: a healthy immune system is important to fight inflammation, which can promote muscle breakdown. Certain amino acids such as glutamine and arginine can have an anti-inflammatory effect and support the immune system.
Targeting amino acid intake, especially BCAAs, can help prevent or slow muscle breakdown in sarcopenia. This can be achieved by eating a high-protein diet with high-quality protein sources such as lean meats, fish, dairy products, legumes and soy products. In some cases, supplementation with amino acid supplements may also be useful in consultation with a physician or nutritionist. It is important to note that sarcopenia is a complex medical problem that involves several factors. In addition to diet, physical activity, hormonal changes and other health conditions also play a role.
Amino acids play an important role in mental well-being because they serve as building blocks for neurotransmitters, which enable communication between nerve cells in the brain. Here are some amino acids and their effects on mental well-being.
- Tryptophan: tryptophan is an essential amino acid needed for the synthesis of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that regulates mood and sleep. Adequate tryptophan levels can help promote positive mood, relaxation and sleep quality.
- Tyrosine: tyrosine is a non-essential amino acid needed for the synthesis of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. These neurotransmitters are associated with motivation, energy, concentration, and reward systems in the brain. Adequate tyrosine levels can help support these aspects of mental well-being.
- Glutamine: glutamine is a non-essential amino acid that plays an important role in maintaining balance in the brain. It can support brain function, improve clarity of thinking and mental stamina.
- Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA): GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that reduces anxiety and promotes relaxation. It is synthesized from the amino acid glutamine.
- Phenylalanine: phenylalanine is an essential amino acid needed for the synthesis of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. These neurotransmitters are associated with mood regulation, stress responses and energy.
A balanced diet that includes adequate amounts of high-quality protein and a variety of foods that provide these amino acids can help support mental well-being. In addition, certain dietary supplements or targeted nutritional therapy may be considered in consultation with a physician or dietitian to meet specific amino acid needs. However, it is important to note that psychological well-being depends on many factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental factors, lifestyle, and other psychosocial aspects. Amino acids alone cannot solve all mental health problems. For persistent mental health problems, it is advisable to seek professional help from a psychologist or psychiatrist for comprehensive treatment.
Exhaustion and fatigue
Exhaustion fatigue, also known as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex disorder characterized by persistent fatigue that is not relieved by rest and is often accompanied by other symptoms such as muscle pain, cognitive difficulties, and sleep disturbances. While the exact cause of exhaustion fatigue is not fully understood, there is evidence to suggest that certain amino acids may play a role in its management. Here are some amino acids that have been studied in relation to exhaustion fatigue:
- Carnitine: Carnitine is an amino acid that plays a crucial role in energy production within cells. It helps transport fatty acids into the mitochondria, where they are used as a fuel source. Studies have shown that supplementation with Carnitine may improve fatigue symptoms and exercise tolerance in individuals with exhaustion fatigue.
- Glutamine: Glutamine is an amino acid that is important for immune function and gut health. It is a preferred fuel source for certain cells in the body, including immune cells and cells lining the intestines. Some research suggests that Glutamine supplementation may improve fatigue and gastrointestinal symptoms in individuals with exhaustion fatigue.
- Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs): BCAAs, including leucine, isoleucine, and valine, are essential amino acids that are involved in protein synthesis and energy production. They have been studied for their potential to reduce fatigue and muscle soreness during exercise. While more research is needed, BCAA supplementation may be beneficial in managing fatigue symptoms in some individuals.
- Taurine: Taurine is a non-essential amino acid that has various functions in the body, including antioxidant activity and regulation of neurotransmitters. It has been suggested that taurine supplementation may improve fatigue symptoms and exercise performance.
It's important to note that the research on amino acids and exhaustion fatigue is still limited, and individual responses may vary. Additionally, fatigue can have multiple underlying causes, and addressing any underlying medical conditions or lifestyle factors is crucial in managing exhaustion fatigue. If you are experiencing fatigue or exhaustion, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional for a comprehensive evaluation and personalized treatment plan. They can help determine the underlying cause of your fatigue and guide you on appropriate interventions, which may include dietary changes, supplementation, lifestyle modifications, and other forms of therapy.
Fasting is a state in which there is no intake of food. During fasting, the body undergoes various metabolic changes to obtain energy and maintain vital functions. Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) are a group of essential amino acids consisting of leucine, isoleucine and valine. They play an important role in protein and energy metabolism, as well as muscle growth and repair. BCAAs are often taken by athletes and fitness enthusiasts to reduce muscle breakdown during intense workouts and support muscle recovery. During fasting, there may be an increased breakdown of muscle protein as the body seeks alternative sources of energy.
Amino acids play an important role in metabolism and also have an impact on glucose metabolism, which is impaired in diabetes mellitus. Here is some information on the relationship between amino acids and diabetes mellitus.
Insulin resistance: insulin is a hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. In type 2 diabetes, there is often insulin resistance, in which the body's cells are less sensitive to insulin. Some amino acids, particularly branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) such as leucine, isoleucine, and valine, have been linked to insulin resistance. Elevated levels of BCAAs in the blood may be a marker of insulin resistance and risk for type 2 diabetes.
Glucose metabolism: Amino acids are also involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism. In particular, the amino acids alanine and glutamine play an important role in glucose production in the liver. Diabetes mellitus can lead to impaired regulation of glucose metabolism, resulting in elevated blood glucose levels. The concentration of these amino acids in the blood may therefore be affected in diabetes.
Protein degradation: In uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, increased protein degradation may occur, especially in the muscles. Amino acids serve as building blocks for proteins, and impaired protein breakdown can lead to an imbalance of amino acids. This can lead to muscle breakdown and a negative impact on overall body composition.
It is important to note that the relationship between amino acids and diabetes mellitus is complex and influenced by several factors.
When inflammation occurs in the body, various changes in the amino acid profile in the blood can occur. Inflammatory responses can affect metabolism and protein breakdown, which can lead to changes in amino acid concentrations. Here are some examples of such changes:
- Increased concentrations of inflammation-associated amino acids: during an inflammatory response, amino acids such as C-reactive protein (CRP), serine, glycine, and tryptophan may be elevated. These amino acids are considered inflammatory markers and may increase in response to inflammatory processes.
- Decreased levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs): Inflammation can lead to increased protein breakdown, with increased breakdown of the BCAAs leucine, isoleucine, and valine. This can lead to a decrease in BCAA concentrations in the blood.
- Altered concentrations of immune system amino acids: amino acids such as arginine and glutamine play an important role in the immune system. During an inflammatory response, there may be changes in the concentration of these amino acids as they are needed for immune cell function and the production of pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory molecules.
- Increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory amino acids: Certain amino acids such as histidine, asparagine, and glutamic acid may serve as precursors for pro-inflammatory molecules. Inflammation may result in increased production of these amino acids.
It is important to note that the changes in the amino acid profile in inflammation can be complex and vary from individual to individual. The exact changes depend on the type of inflammation, the severity of the inflammatory response, and other individual factors.
Amino acids play an important role in hair health. They are the building blocks of proteins that make up hair. Various amino acids are crucial for hair growth, hair structure and hair health in general. A deficiency of certain amino acids can lead to hair loss. Here are some amino acids that may play a role:
- Cysteine: cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is important for the formation of keratin, the main protein in hair. A deficiency of cysteine can affect hair growth and lead to hair loss.
- Methionine: methionine is an essential amino acid that the body cannot produce itself and must therefore be obtained from the diet. It is important for the formation of keratin and the strengthening of hair. A deficiency of methionine can lead to brittle hair and hair loss.
- Lysine: lysine is an essential amino acid that is important for collagen production. Collagen is a structural protein that strengthens hair. A deficiency of lysine can lead to hair weakness and hair loss.
- Arginine: arginine is an amino acid that can improve blood circulation to the scalp. Good blood circulation to the scalp is important for supplying nutrients and oxygen to the hair follicles. A deficiency of L-arginine can lead to poor blood flow and affect hair growth.
It is important to note that hair loss can be caused by several factors, including genetic predisposition, hormonal changes, nutritional deficiencies, stress and other health conditions. Deficiencies in certain amino acids can play a role, but it's often a combination of factors that lead to hair loss.
In liver dysfunction, changes in the concentration of amino acids in the blood may occur. The liver plays a crucial role in the regulation of amino acid metabolism, including their synthesis, breakdown and detoxification. When liver function is impaired, this can have several effects on amino acids.
- Increased concentration of some amino acids: In liver disease, there may be an increase in certain amino acids in the blood. This may indicate a decreased ability of the liver to metabolize or break down these amino acids. For example, an increased concentration of aromatic amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan may be observed.
- Decreased concentration of certain amino acids: At the same time, liver dysfunction may result in decreased concentration of certain amino acids in the blood. This may be due to impaired synthesis or increased breakdown of these amino acids in the liver. For example, concentrations of branched-chain amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, and valine may be decreased.
- Changes in the ratio of certain amino acids: liver dysfunction can also lead to imbalances in the ratio of certain amino acids. A well-known example is the ratio of branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, valine) to aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan). In liver disease, this ratio may be disturbed.
It is important to note that the exact changes in blood amino acid concentrations may depend on the specific type and severity of liver dysfunction. Different liver diseases may have different effects on amino acid metabolism. It is advisable to consult a specialist, such as a gastroenterologist or a hepatologist, to obtain an accurate diagnosis and plan appropriate treatment for liver dysfunction.
In kidney dysfunctions, changes in the concentration of amino acids in the blood may occur. The kidneys play an important role in the regulation of amino acid metabolism as they are responsible for the breakdown, excretion and reabsorption of amino acids. If the kidneys are not functioning properly, this can lead to impaired amino acid metabolism. Here are some possible changes in blood amino acid concentrations in kidney dysfunction:
- Increased concentration of certain amino acids: In kidney diseases such as renal failure, there may be an accumulation of certain amino acids in the blood. This is because the kidneys are normally responsible for the breakdown and excretion of these amino acids. Increased concentration of amino acids such as urea, homocysteine, and certain sulfur-containing amino acids such as cysteine may be observed in renal dysfunction.
- Decreased concentration of certain amino acids: In some cases, decreased concentration of certain amino acids in the blood may occur in renal dysfunction. This may be due to impaired reabsorption or increased excretion of these amino acids by the kidneys. For example, the concentration of amino acids such as arginine, citrulline, and asparagine may decrease in kidney disease.
- Imbalance of amino acid ratios: Kidney dysfunction can lead to an imbalance in amino acid ratios. An example of this is the increase in the ratio of phenylalanine to tyrosine in the blood, as the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine depends on the kidneys.
It is important to note that changes in blood amino acid concentrations in renal dysfunction may depend on the specific type and severity of kidney disease. Accurate diagnosis and monitoring by a physician or nephrologist is critical to evaluate the effects of renal dysfunction on amino acid metabolism and to take appropriate treatment measures.
In thyroid dysfunctions, changes in the concentration of amino acids in the blood may occur. The thyroid gland is an important organ that produces hormones that regulate metabolism. Hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism can affect metabolism and thus have an impact on amino acid metabolism.
Hyperthyroidism, also known as hyperthyroidism, can cause an accelerated metabolism. This can lead to an increased rate of protein breakdown, with increased amino acids being released from the muscles. This can lead to increased levels of certain amino acids in the blood, particularly branched-chain amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine and valine.
In hypothyroidism, also known as hypothyroidism, the metabolism slows down. This can lead to a reduced rate of protein breakdown and a possible deficiency of certain amino acids. In particular, the concentration of tyrosine and tryptophan may be reduced in hypothyroidism.
It is important to note that changes in amino acid concentrations in thyroid dysfunction can vary from individual to individual and depend on several factors, including the severity of the disease and the individual metabolic profile.
Connective tissue system
Dysfunction of the connective tissue system can have various effects on the amino acid concentration in the blood. The connective tissue is made up of collagen, which in turn is composed of various amino acids. Therefore, changes in connective tissue can also affect metabolism and the availability of certain amino acids. Here are some possible effects of connective tissue dysfunction on blood amino acid concentrations:
- Collagen degradation: when the rate of collagen degradation is increased, for example in diseases such as fibromyalgia or rheumatoid arthritis, an increased concentration of amino acids such as hydroxyproline may be found in the blood. Hydroxyproline is a specific amino acid found mainly in collagen and may therefore be a marker for collagen degradation.
- Inflammation and oxidative stress: Inflammatory processes in connective tissue, as can occur in diseases such as arthritis or lupus, can lead to increased oxidative stress. This can promote the breakdown of amino acids and alter the amino acid concentration in the blood.
- Metabolic disorders: connective tissue diseases can affect the metabolism and absorption of amino acids.
However, it is important to note that the specific effects of connective tissue dysfunction on blood amino acid concentrations are highly dependent on the type and severity of the disease.
Dysfunction of the skin can have various effects on the body, including possible changes in blood amino acid concentrations. The skin plays an important role in the synthesis and breakdown of amino acids and in maintaining protein and amino acid balance in the body. Here are some possible links between skin dysfunction and amino acid changes:
- Inflammatory skin diseases: Skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, or acne may be associated with an increased inflammatory response. Inflammation can affect amino acid metabolism by increasing the need for certain amino acids or increasing the breakdown of amino acids. This can lead to changes in amino acid concentrations in the blood.
- Wound healing and collagen formation: Amino acids such as proline and glycine are critical for the formation of collagen, the main component of skin. Impaired wound healing or reduced collagen production due to skin injury or age-related skin changes can lead to changes in the concentration of these amino acids.
- Skin renewal and cell regeneration: amino acids such as lysine, arginine and glutamine play a role in skin renewal and cell regeneration. In the case of impaired skin function or skin diseases, these processes may be impaired, possibly affecting the amino acid concentration in the blood.
In cardiovascular dysfunction, amino acid concentrations in the blood may change. Some possible changes are:
- Increase in homocysteine: homocysteine is an amino acid that is normally found in small amounts in the body. However, in cardiovascular disease, an increase in homocysteine levels may be observed. Elevated homocysteine levels have been associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease.
- Decrease in arginine or citrulline has been noted, which are important for the production of nitric oxide (NO), which has a relaxing effect on blood vessels.
- Increase in proinflammatory amino acids: in inflammatory conditions often associated with cardiovascular disease, concentrations of certain proinflammatory amino acids such as cysteine, glutamine, and glutamic acid may be increased.
When the immune system is dysfunctional, changes in blood amino acid concentrations can occur. The immune system plays a critical role in fighting off infections and maintaining the body's defense mechanisms. Amino acids are important building blocks for protein synthesis and have a variety of functions in the immune system. The following changes in amino acid concentrations may occur in immune system dysfunction, including.
- Glutamine: glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood and plays a critical role in immune system function. In immune system dysfunction, there may be an increased consumption of glutamine as it is needed by immune cells to function and proliferate. This can lead to a decrease in glutamine concentration in the blood.
- Arginine: Arginine is an amino acid that is important for immune cell function. It plays a role in regulating the immune response and the production of nitric oxide, which is involved in defense against pathogens. Dysfunction of the immune system can result in altered arginine concentrations, either by an increase or decrease, depending on the underlying disorder.
- Tryptophan: tryptophan is an essential amino acid and serves as a precursor for the synthesis of serotonin, a neurotransmitter with immunoregulatory properties. In the case of immune system dysfunction, tryptophan concentrations may be altered, as the metabolic pathway of tryptophan may be affected by inflammation or immune activation.
- Cysteine: cysteine is an amino acid needed for the formation of glutathione, an important antioxidant in the body. The immune system depends on adequate availability of glutathione to ward off oxidative stress and maintain immune function. When the immune system is dysfunctional, there can be a decrease in cysteine concentration, which can affect glutathione synthesis and oxidative stress.
The condition of the bone system can be affected by various diseases or disorders, such as osteoporosis, osteomalacia, bone fractures or bone tumors. These changes may also affect the metabolism of amino acids. Some possible changes in blood amino acid concentrations in bone dysfunction are:
- Hydroxyproline: hydroxyproline is an amino acid found mainly in collagen, the main component of bone tissue. Increased levels of hydroxyproline in the blood may indicate increased collagen breakdown, which can occur in conditions such as osteoporosis or bone fractures.
- Amino acids of collagen: collagen consists of various amino acids, including glycine, proline and hydroxyproline. Impaired collagen formation or increased collagen degradation in bone disease may affect blood concentrations of these amino acids.
Dysfunction of the muscular system can show changes in amino acid concentrations in the blood. Here are some examples.
- Increased concentration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs): Impaired muscle function or muscle damage can lead to an increased release of BCAAs, such as leucine, isoleucine and valine. These amino acids serve as an important source of energy for muscles and may be released in increased amounts during muscle breakdown or muscle damage.
- Increased concentration of glutamine: glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid that plays an important role in providing energy and protecting muscle mass. Increased release of glutamine can be observed in muscle dysfunctions such as muscle wasting or breakdown.
- Decreased concentration of arginine: Arginine is an amino acid responsible for the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the body. NO plays a role in regulating blood flow and muscle metabolism. Dysfunction of the muscular system can lead to decreased levels of arginine, which can affect muscle metabolism.
- Changes in essential amino acids: impaired muscle function can also have an impact on the concentration of other essential amino acids needed for muscle development and repair. These include amino acids such as lysine, methionine, phenylalanine and tryptophan.
It is important to note that changes in blood amino acid concentrations in muscle dysfunction are not specific and may depend on the underlying cause. Different muscle diseases or injuries may have different effects on amino acid metabolism.
Dysfunction of the nervous system can have various effects on the concentration of amino acids in the blood. Here are some examples of changes that may occur in relation to nervous system dysfunction:
- Glutamate: an increased concentration of glutamate in the blood may indicate impaired regulation of the neurotransmitter glutamate. An imbalance of glutamate in the brain may be associated with neurological disorders such as stroke, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease.
- GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid): GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that has a calming effect on the nervous system. A low concentration of GABA in the blood may indicate impaired GABA synthesis or release and may be associated with anxiety disorders, depression, and sleep disturbances.
- Dopamine: dopamine is a neurotransmitter important for reward regulation, movement coordination and motivation. Impaired dopamine production or function can lead to disorders such as Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and addiction.
- Glutamine: glutamine is a non-essential amino acid that plays an important role in the energy metabolism of the brain. Impaired glutamine utilization can lead to increased levels of glutamine in the blood and may also be associated with hepatic encephalopathy, a brain dysfunction due to liver disease.
When protein balance is dysfunctional, changes in blood amino acid concentrations can occur. Protein metabolism is closely related to the uptake, breakdown and utilization of amino acids. When protein metabolism is disturbed, it can have an impact on amino acid concentrations. Here are some possible changes that can be observed:
- Increased amino acid concentration: when the rate of protein breakdown is increased, such as increased muscle breakdown or increased proteolysis, more amino acids may enter the bloodstream. As a result, the concentration of certain amino acids in the blood may be increased.
- Reduced amino acid concentration: in the case of reduced protein synthesis, as may be the case with impaired liver function or malnutrition, the availability and thus the concentration of certain amino acids in the blood may decrease.
- Imbalance in amino acid composition: disturbed regulation of protein metabolism can lead to an imbalance in amino acid composition. Certain amino acids may be present in higher or lower concentrations, which may affect various metabolic processes and biological functions.
- Changes in specific amino acids: depending on the type of protein metabolism disorder, certain amino acids may be particularly affected. For example, low concentrations of branched-chain amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, and valine may occur in liver disease. In renal dysfunction, increased concentrations of amino acids such as alanine or cystine may be observed.
Dysfunction of the energy balance can affect the concentration of amino acids in the blood. The body's energy balance is closely linked to the metabolism of amino acids, as they serve as building blocks for protein synthesis and as energy suppliers. Here are some possible changes in blood amino acid concentrations in energy balance dysfunction:
- Increased branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs): Energy balance dysfunction, such as insulin resistance or diabetes, can lead to an increased concentration of BCAAs in the blood. This is because BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine and valine) play an important role in energy metabolism and may circulate more in the blood when insulin signaling is impaired.
- Altered glutamine concentration: glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid that plays an important role in energy metabolism. When energy balance is dysfunctional, altered glutamine concentration may occur. In some cases, an increased glutamine concentration can be observed in the blood because glutamine is increasingly used as an energy source.
- Altered arginine concentration: Arginine is an amino acid involved in various metabolic pathways, including energy metabolism. When energy balance is dysfunctional, such as in mitochondrial diseases, altered arginine concentration may occur. These changes may be related to impaired energy production in cells.
- Decreased taurine concentration: Taurine is an amino acid that plays an important role in energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. When energy balance is dysfunctional, such as in mitochondrial diseases, there may be a decreased concentration of taurine in the blood. This may be due to impaired taurine synthesis or increased consumption of taurine in the body.
Hormone dysfunction can have various effects on the body, including changes in blood amino acid concentrations. Hormones play an important role in regulating various metabolic processes, including protein and amino acid metabolism. Here are some possible effects of hormone dysfunction on blood amino acid concentrations:
- Insulin is an important hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. In insulin resistance or diabetes, the uptake of amino acids into muscle tissue may be impaired. This can lead to an increased concentration of amino acids in the blood.
- Thyroid hormones such as thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) influence metabolism and energy consumption in the body. In hypothyroidism, there may be decreased protein synthesis, which can lead to lower amino acid concentrations in the blood. In hyperthyroidism, the breakdown of muscle proteins may be increased, which may lead to increased amino acid concentrations.
- Growth hormone (somatotropin) plays an important role in tissue growth and regeneration. Disruption of growth hormone production or release can lead to changes in blood amino acid concentrations.
- Sex hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone affect metabolism and have an impact on muscle and fat metabolism. Dysfunction of these hormones, as can occur with hormonal imbalances or during menopause, can affect blood amino acid concentrations.
Amino acids play an important role as antioxidants in the body. Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or reduce oxidative damage caused by free radicals. Free radicals are unstable molecules that can be produced in the body by various metabolic processes or external factors such as pollution, smoking or UV radiation. When free radicals are present in excess, they can cause damage to cells and tissues associated with various diseases, including heart disease, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and premature aging. Some amino acids have antioxidant properties and can neutralize free radicals. Here are two examples:
- Glutathione: glutathione is a non-proteinogenic amino acid formed from the amino acids glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine. It is one of the most important antioxidants in the body and plays a critical role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Glutathione can directly neutralize free radicals or increase the activity of other antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase.
- Cysteine: cysteine is a proteinogenic amino acid and a component of glutathione. It contains a sulfur-containing group that contributes to antioxidant activity. Cysteine can neutralize free radicals through direct reactions and also plays an important role in the regeneration of other antioxidant molecules such as vitamin C and vitamin E.
It is important to note that amino acids are not the only antioxidants in the body. There are also other substances such as vitamins (e.g. vitamin C, vitamin E) and enzymes (e.g. superoxide dismutase) that have antioxidant properties. A balanced diet rich in antioxidants can help reduce oxidative stress in the body and reduce the risk of oxidation-related diseases.
Amino acids are essential building blocks for the growth and development of the body. They are the building blocks of proteins, which are essential for building tissues, muscles, organs, enzymes and hormones.
Amino acids are ingested through food and are important for protein synthesis. There are 20 different amino acids, nine of which are considered essential because the body cannot produce them on its own and therefore must obtain them from the diet. These essential amino acids include histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. Amino acids are important for growth in several ways:
- Protein biosynthesis: amino acids are used to build proteins. Proteins are critical for growth and building of tissues, including muscles, bones, skin and organs.
- Muscle development: amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine and valine, play an important role in promoting muscle growth and repairing muscle damage after exercise.
- Hormone regulation: certain amino acids are precursors for the production of hormones in the body. Hormones such as insulin, growth hormone, and testosterone are important for growth and development in children and adolescents, and for maintaining muscle mass in adulthood.
- Immune function: some amino acids, such as glutamine, play a critical role in supporting the immune system. A well-functioning immune system is important for warding off disease and promoting growth.
It is important to have a balanced diet that provides adequate amounts of all essential amino acids. Protein-rich foods such as meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, legumes and soy products are good sources of amino acids. In some cases, such as intense physical training or certain medical conditions, targeted supplementation with amino acids may be recommended to support growth and recovery.
Amino acids play an important role in stress management and have various effects on the body and brain. Here are some important aspects of the importance of amino acids in dealing with stress:
- Neurotransmitter production: amino acids are the building blocks for the production of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These neurotransmitters influence our mood, sleep and response to stress. Adequate availability of the corresponding amino acids is important to maintain proper neurotransmitter function.
- Serotonin: The amino acid tryptophan is a precursor to serotonin, a neurotransmitter important for regulating mood and emotional responses. Chronic stress can decrease tryptophan levels, which can lead to decreased serotonin production. Adequate intake of tryptophan-rich food sources such as poultry, dairy products, nuts and seeds can help maintain serotonin levels and better manage stress.
- GABA: The amino acid glutamine can be converted into GABA, an important inhibitory neurotransmitter that regulates brain activity. GABA has a calming effect and can help reduce stress and anxiety. Adequate intake of glutamine-rich foods such as meat, fish, dairy products and legumes can help increase GABA levels and reduce stress responses.
- Energy production: amino acids play a role in energy production in the body. During stress, energy demands may be increased, and an adequate supply of energy-rich amino acids such as BCAAs (branched-chain amino acids) can help balance energy levels and reduce fatigue.
It is important to note that the importance of amino acids in managing stress is complex and depends on many factors, including individual genetic predisposition and dietary habits. It is recommended to eat a balanced diet with sufficient protein and various amino acids to support stress management.
Glutathione synthesis plays an important role in the detoxification of the body. Glutathione is an endogenous antioxidant and plays crucial role in the detoxification process by neutralizing and removing harmful substances from the body. The synthesis of glutathione occurs in cells and requires various amino acids, including glutamine, cysteine and glycine. Glutathione has an important function in detoxification as it binds toxic substances, such as heavy metals, environmental toxins and free radicals, and converts them into a less harmful form. In addition, glutathione also supports the function of other antioxidants in the body, such as vitamin C and vitamin E, by regenerating them and increasing their effectiveness. It is important to ensure an adequate supply of the amino acids needed to support glutathione synthesis. A balanced diet of protein-rich foods can help provide the necessary amino acids. In addition, certain dietary supplements containing glutathione or its precursors can support glutathione synthesis.
Please note: Normal values may vary between different laboratories, especially because free amino acids are measured. Talk to your health care provider about your specific test results. Results should always be evaluated in the context of clinical findings and/or additional test results.